L’encerclement de Port-au-Prince, la capitale de la République d’Haïti, siège du pouvoir central, par des gangs lourdement armés, consacre, une fois de plus, la perte totale du double monopole de la violence physique légitime et de la fiscalité par l’État fragile haïtien. Face à cette catastrophe politique, le pouvoir de facto a sollicité de la communauté internationale (CI) une intervention militaire en vue de mettre les bandes armées hors d’état de nuire. L’incapacité de la CI à répondre favorablement à la demande du gouvernement de facto a porté la violence des gangs à son paroxysme : massacres, viols collectifs, déplacements de populations même dans les quartiers huppés, fonctionnement ȧ plein régime de l’industrie du kidnapping entraînant la décapitalisation des classes moyennes et le départ massif et définitif de centaines de socioprofessionnels haïtiens pour l’étranger.

Face à cette situation d’anarchie sanglante et de chaos généralisé, abandonnées à leur sort par les dirigeants haïtiens et la communauté internationale, les populations de Port-au-Prince ont lancé l’Opération Bwa Kale. En réagissant de la sorte, elles apportent à la Police Nationale d’Haïti (PNH) le soutien que lui refusent le pouvoir de facto et la CI. La réaction spontanée et musclée des populations des autres départements donne une ampleur nationale ȧ l’Opération Bwa Kale. En terrorisant les terroristes, l’Opération Bwa Kale crée une nouvelle donne : la peur change de camp. Mais un mouvement populaire non encadré, n’ayant aucune idéologie ni direction politique, peut provoquer des dommages collatéraux inimaginables. Comment éviter que l’Opération Bwa Kale ne se transforme en une vaste amplification de l’anarchie sanglante : véritable « guerre de tous contre tous » ?

La classe politique, la communauté internationale, le secteur privé des affaires et certaines organisations de la société civile étant complètement discrédités aux yeux des populations des dix départements géographiques du pays et de la diaspora, la question se pose dès lors : comment peut-on sauver ce qui peut l’être encore ?

​Il est évident que l’Opération Bwa Kale n’est pas la réponse appropriée ȧ cette question. En revanche, l’Opération Bwa Kale crée les conditions de possibilité de reconstitution des appareils répressifs et administratifs de l’État, afin de lui garantir le double monopole de la violence physique légitime et de la fiscalité. En effet, l’Opération Bwa Kale souligne à l’attention des élites haïtiennes qu’elles ont l’obligation impérieuse de doter le pays d’un appareil politico-administratif suffisamment robuste lui permettant de disposer du plein contrôle de son espace territorial et d’être en mesure de faire respecter les règles du jeu, de remplir ses missions régaliennes et d’imposer ses normes de gestion et ses modes d’action ou de surveillance à la population constituant sa société ou sa base matérielle d’existence. En d’autres termes, l’Opération Bwa Kale rappelle aux élites haïtiennes leur responsabilité de créer le cadre étatique capable de garantir au peuple haïtien le droit à la Sécurité, à l’Alimentation, à la Santé, à l’Éducation, au Travail et au Logement. ​

L’État demeure donc l’horizon indépassable, car seule cette macrostructure ou mégaorganisation peut empêcher à la violence privée de provoquer la désintégration de la société et assurer la protection des vies et le droit de propriété. Dans le monde moderne, pas d’État, pas de société, pas d’économie ! Quoiqu’il en soit, l’Opération Bwa Kale crée cette nouvelle dynamique et enseigne aux élites haïtiennes que Hors de l’État, point de salut. J’espère qu’elles apprendront finalement la leçon et sauront profiter de ce second souffle pour mettre en branle l’entreprise collective de sauvetage national et de refondation de l’État-nation. ​

Sauveur Pierre ÉTIENNE Le 23 mai 2023

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