Diabète gestationnel et de grossesse

Le diabète gestationnel est un type de diabète qui apparaît pour la première fois pendant la grossesse chez les femmes enceintes qui n’ont jamais eu cette maladie auparavant. Chez certaines femmes, le diabète gestationnel peut les affecter au cours de plusieurs grossesses. Le diabète gestationnel apparaît généralement au milieu de la grossesse. Les médecins effectuent généralement des tests entre 24 et 28 semaines de grossesse.

Le diabète gestationnel peut souvent être contrôlé par une alimentation saine et une activité physique régulière, mais parfois la mère aura également besoin d’insuline.

Problèmes de diabète gestationnel pendant la grossesse

Une glycémie mal contrôlée dans le diabète gestationnel peut entraîner des problèmes chez la mère et son bébé:

Un bébé trop gros

Un diabète mal contrôlé provoque une élévation de la glycémie du bébé. Le bébé est « suralimenté » et grandit trop. En plus de causer de l’inconfort à la maman dans les derniers mois de la grossesse, un bébé surdimensionné peut causer des problèmes lors de l’accouchement pour elle comme pour lui. La mère peut avoir besoin d’une césarienne afin de pouvoir accoucher. Le bébé peut naître avec des lésions nerveuses dues à la pression exercée sur les épaules pendant l’accouchement.

La césarienne

La césarienne est une opération qui consiste à accoucher du bébé dans le ventre de la mère. Une femme dont le diabète est mal contrôlé a plus de chances d’avoir besoin d’une césarienne. Lorsque le bébé est accouché par césarienne, il faut plus de temps à la mère pour se remettre de l’accouchement.

Hypertension artérielle (pré-éclampsie)

Lorsqu’une femme enceinte souffre d’hypertension artérielle, de protéines dans ses urines et d’un gonflement fréquent des doigts et des orteils qui ne disparaît pas, elle peut avoir une pré-éclampsie. Il s’agit d’un problème grave qui mérite une surveillance étroite par votre médecin. L’hypertension artérielle peut nuire à la fois à une mère et à son bébé à naître. Il peut provoquer une naissance prématurée du bébé et également des convulsions ou des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (un caillot sanguin ou un saignement dans le cerveau avec des lésions cérébrales possibles) chez les femmes pendant le travail et l’accouchement. Les femmes atteintes de diabète souffrent plus souvent d’hypertension que les femmes qui n’en souffrent pas.

Faible taux de sucre dans le sang (hypoglycémie)

Les personnes atteintes de diabète qui prennent de l’insuline ou d’autres médicaments contre le diabète peuvent présenter une. L’hypoglycémie peut être grave et même mortelle si elle n’est pas traitée rapidement. Les femmes peuvent éviter une chute dangereuse de leur glycémie en surveillant attentivement leur taux et en les traitant rapidement.

Si la mère n’a pas contrôlé son diabète pendant la grossesse, la glycémie du bébé peut chuter rapidement après sa naissance. Les niveaux de sucre du bébé doivent être surveillés pendant plusieurs heures après la naissance.

5 conseils pour les femmes atteintes de diabète gestationnel

Mangez sains

Mangez des aliments sains inclus dans un plan de repas pour les personnes atteintes de diabète. Un nutritionniste peut vous aider à créer un plan de repas sain et vous apprendre à contrôler votre glycémie pendant la grossesse.

Faites de l’exercice régulièrement

L’exercice est un autre moyen de contrôler votre glycémie, car il aide à équilibrer votre apport alimentaire. Après avoir consulté votre médecin, vous pouvez faire de l’exercice régulièrement pendant et après la grossesse. Visez un minimum de 30 minutes d’activité physique modérée à vigoureuse au moins cinq jours par semaine. Cela peut être de la marche rapide, de la natation ou des jeux actifs avec les enfants.

Vérification fréquente de la glycémie

Étant donné que la grossesse modifie les besoins énergétiques du corps, la glycémie peut changer très rapidement. Vérifiez souvent votre glycémie, selon les directives de votre médecin.

Prenez de l’insuline, si vous en avez besoin

Parfois, les femmes atteintes de diabète gestationnel doivent prendre de l’insuline. Si votre médecin vous prescrit de l’insuline, utilisez-la comme indiqué pour contrôler votre glycémie.

Faites-vous tester pour le diabète après la grossesse

Faites-vous tester pour le diabète 6 à 12 semaines après la naissance de votre bébé, puis tous les 1 à 3 ans.

Chez la plupart des femmes atteintes de diabète gestationnel, le diabète disparaît après l’accouchement. Quand il ne disparaît pas, on parle alors de diabète de type 2. Même si le diabète disparaît après la naissance du bébé, la moitié des femmes qui ont eu un diabète gestationnel développeront un diabète de type 2. Il est important pour une femme qui a eu diabète gestationnel continuez à faire de l’exercice et à manger sainement après la grossesse pour prévenir ou retarder le diabète de type 2. Vous devez également rappeler à votre médecin de vérifier votre glycémie tous les 1 à 3 ans.

Dr. Marie Phara AMBROISE

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