• Il y a peu ou pas de risque de contracter ou de transmettre le VIH par le sexe oral.
  • L’hépatite et d’autres MST peuvent être transmises lors de relations sexuelles orales.
  • Les barrières en latex et les médicaments pour prévenir et traiter le VIH peuvent réduire davantage le très faible risque de contracter le VIH lors de relations sexuelles orales.

Le sexe oral consiste à utiliser la bouche pour stimuler le pénis (fellation), le vagin (cunilingus) ou l’anus (anilingus).

Risque de contracter le VIH

Pour les personnes séronégatives, les risques de contracter le VIH en ayant des relations sexuelles orales avec une personne séropositive sont extrêmement faibles. Cependant, il est difficile de connaître le risque exact car de nombreuses personnes ayant des relations sexuelles orales ont également des relations sexuelles anales ou vaginales. Le type de sexe oral qui peut être le plus risqué est le sexe oral sur le pénis. Mais le risque est encore très faible, beaucoup plus faible que lors de relations sexuelles anales ou vaginales.

Bien que le risque de transmission du VIH par le sexe oral soit faible, plusieurs facteurs peuvent augmenter ce risque, notamment le contact oral avec le sang menstruel, la présence d’autres maladies sexuellement transmissibles (MST) et le saignement des gencives ou des plaies dans la bouche, le vagin ou le pénis.

 Risque d’autres infections

D’autres MST qui peuvent être transmises par le sexe oral comprennent la syphilis, l’herpès, la gonorrhée et la chlamydia. Anilingus peut également transmettre les hépatites A et B, les parasites intestinaux (comme Giardia) et les bactéries (comme E. coli).

Réduire le risque

Les gens peuvent réduire davantage le risque déjà faible de transmission du VIH lors de relations sexuelles orales en empêchant leurs partenaires sexuels masculins d’éjaculer dans leur bouche. Ceci peut être réalisé en retirant la bouche du pénis avant l’éjaculation ou en utilisant un préservatif.

L’utilisation d’une barrière pendant le sexe oral (comme un préservatif ou une digue dentaire) peut réduire davantage le risque de transmission du VIH, d’autres MST et de l’hépatite. Les digues dentaires sont de minces feuilles carrées de latex ou de silicone qui sont placées sur le vagin ou l’anus pendant le sexe oral. Les préservatifs en latex peuvent également être utilisés comme digues dentaires en les coupant à longueur.

Le risque de transmission du VIH par le sexe oral est encore plus faible si le partenaire séronégatif prend des médicaments pour prévenir le VIH (prophylaxie pré-exposition ou PrEP) ou si le partenaire séropositif prend des médicaments pour traiter le VIH (thérapie antirétrovirale ou TAR) et a une suppression virale.

Dr. Marie Phara Ambroise

34 thoughts on “Le sexe oral et le risque de contracter le VIH.”
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